高考完形填空解题策略与技巧


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完形填空属“综合能力应用”题型,是高考的必考题型。完形填空在高考试卷中是拉开考生得分的一道关键题型。该题型为20个空,分数为30分,分数权重占卷面20%,因此掌握完形填空解题技巧对考生而言尤为重要。

命题特点:非等距离挖空的命题方式是完形填空的较大特色。短文首句不挖空,以便为考生理解全文留下足够信息,命题者根据考查目的进行挖空,造成信息链中断,这就要求考生依据上下文的文意捕捉到空白处的缺词。从近几年高考完形填空题看,纯语法知识几乎不考,主要考查考生灵活运用所学词汇的能力,尤其是以考查实词或信息词为主,着重考查考生对文章的内在逻辑和整体把握能力。因此,把握句间和段落之间的内在逻辑关系,通过上下文暗示,对篇章、段落或句意的整体把握;再则,干扰项的设置与语法结构无甚关系,重在文意干扰。因此,把握文意和具体语境,通过对词义的辨析,是解完形填空的较好手段。

解题技巧:巧解完形填空题,考生必须进行通篇考虑,掌握大意,综合所学词法、句法和常识进行分析判断。为帮助考生能更好地解答完形填空题,在这里介绍几种解题技巧。

   1. 复现解题法:这类题多为同义词、近义词和反义词的复现或同义词、近义词和反义词异形复现的形式。这种测试手法主要是考查考生的整体篇章意识和上下文推断能力。

1)In particular, there was (and perhaps still is) a belief in fairies. Not all of these __21__ are the friendly, people-loving characters that appear in Disney films, and in some folk-tales they are __22__ and cause much human suffering.

 21. A. babies         B. believes       C. fairies          D. supermen 

 22. A. powerful       B. cruel         C. frightened       D. extraordinary

【21. C项,同义原词的复现;22. B项,异形近义词的复现】

2)On August 26, 1999, New York City was struck by a terrible rainstorm. The rain caused the streets to __36__ and the subway system almost came to a stop.

36. A. break          B. flood         C. sink            D. crash

【36. B项,异形近义词的复现】

3)Garth’s email was short, but I learned more from that __52__ message than I ever did from a textbook.

 A. accurate          B. urgent         C. brief           D. humorous

 【52. C项,异形同义词的复现】

   2. 语法结构法: 这类题需要考生有较为扎实的语法基础知识,能够从句式的结构上辨别出须填相关的关联词、连词、副词、形容词或相应的动词,当然还要考虑到主谓一致的关系等语法知识要点。

4) When it was 5:00pm, I was ready to go home. I was about to turn off my computer __49__ I received an email from Garth, my Director.

 A. while            B. when          C. where          D. after

 【49. B项,这儿when的意思是just at the moment,与前面的when意思不一样,A项的while无此意,D项的after不符合行为交互逻辑,C项完全是错误的。】

5) “I have been a soloist for over ten years. __53__ the doctor thought I was totally deaf, it didn’t __54__ that my passion couldn’t be realized.

 53. A. However      B. Although       C. When          D. Since

 54. A. mean         B. seem          C. conclude        D. say

 【53. B项,由第二段的内容以及本句的句意“尽管医生认为我已经全聋了,但是这并不意味着我的热情会消失。”,故此处应为让步状语从句;54. A项,由句意可知。】

   3. 语境信息解题法:这类题主要是通过短文中上下语境所透露的信息进行解题,首先要正确理解所给信息,在进行合理分析和推断,这种语境信息一定要遵循逻辑概念,符合运动规律,时态的交替,以及特殊场合下的应急合理判断。

6) These tell the story of a mother whose baby grows __23__ and pale and has changed so much that is almost __24__ to the parents.

23. A. sick                 B. slim                   C. short                     D. small

24. A. uncomfortable  B. unbelievable       C. unacceptable          D. unrecognizable

【23. A项。根据后面pale一词可推断出sick与pale, 以及后面的changed so much相吻合,符合常理,而slim, short和small与pale没什么逻辑上的联系,故不予考虑;24. D项。由前半句和下文句子的意思可以知晓“孩子身体虚弱面色苍白,病得厉害整个外貌变得非常厉害,连父母都认不出来了”,而其他三项与句子的语境信息在逻辑上没什么相关性。】

7) … Still others faced the storm bravely, walking miles to get to work. I __40__ to be one of people on the way to work that morning. I went from subway line to subway line only to find that most __41__ had stopped. After making my way through crowds of people, I finally found a subway line that was __43__....

40. A. used                B. promised            C. deserved                D. happened

41. A. practice           B. routine